Westland Lynx HAS Mk.3

Country of Origin: Britain
Type: ASW Helicopter
Powerplant: Two 1,120 shp Rolls-Royce Gem 42-1 turboshafts, driving four balde main and tail rotors..
Performance: Max continuous cruising speed at 4,536kg (10,000lb) 232km/h (144 mph, 112kt). Max endurance speed 130km/h (81 mph, 70kt). Forward rate of climb 730 ft/min (223 m/min). Vertical rate of climb 1,150 ft/min (351 m/min). Hovering ceiling out of ground effect 8,450 ft (2,575 m). Radius of action 50 nm (58 mi, 93 km) with 20 min loiter reserves. Time on station with 2 torpedoes 1 hour.
Weights: Operating empty 3,030kg (6,680lb), max takeoff 4,763kg (10,500lb)
Accommodation: Pilot, co-pilot/observer/gunner.
Armament: Upto four Sea Skua anti-ship missiles or 2 Sting Ray torpedoes or 2 Mk 46 light torpedoes or 2 Mk 11 depth charges. Can also be fitted with machine guns in cabin door.
Electronics: British Lynx HAS 3s are equipped with Ferranti Seaspray 1 search radar, Plessey Type 195 dipping sonar, Texas Instruments ASQ-81 Magnetic Anomaly Detector (MAD) bird, Racal MIR-2 Orange Corp electronic surveillance measures (ESM) system.
Operators: Brazil, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Portugal, South Korea, UK.

History: The Lynx is a British-French co-production medium multi-role helicopter available in versions for naval (HAS 2) and ground forces (AH 1; see separate database entry). Development was begun in April 1968 with the formal signing of an agreement between Westland and Aerospatiale. Under the terms of the agreement Westland was given design leadership. The naval Lynx is used in the utility, Anti- Surface-Vessel (ASV ), Search And Rescue (SAR), Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW), Over-The-Horizon Targeting (OTHT) and ASV surveillance, and reconnaissance roles. It is flown from navy ships and shore bases by a number of nations.

Lynxes before the HAS 8/Super Lynx version had a semi- rigid main rotor with a monobloc titanium hub and four blades, each with a D-shaped stainless steel box spar, stainless steel leading edge sheath, and fiberglass skin around a Nomex honeycomb core on the trailing edge. The HAS 8 and Super Lynx variants have the British Experimental Rotor Program (BERP)-tip, composite-material rotor blades that have changing cross sections along the span to balance maximum lift and torsional stability requirements. The broad-chord tips are swept and have a thin, curved leading edge section ahead of the main blade that delays retreating blade tip stall. The leading-edge erosion strip is titanium. Older aircraft can be back fitted with such rotors, and indeed, are currently being deployed on a number of older Lynx.

The four-blade tail rotor in earlier aircraft has light alloy spars and is mounted on the left of the swept vertical tail, atop the tail fin and opposite a horizontal stabilizer. The vertical tail has the tail rotor mounted on the left and a tailplane on the right. The HAS 8 and Super Lynx have a more powerful, all-composite tail rotor with a new airfoil profile and a six-in (152-mm) greater diameter. It also rotates in clockwise direction (i.e., the reverse of earlier models).

The semi-rigid main rotor and powerful tail rotor are said to provide a stiff ride, but they also allow roll rates of 100 deg/second, loops, and lateral flight at speeds up to 69 kts (80 mph; 129 km/h). In addition, the main rotor can deliver up to 3,000 lb (1,361 kg) of negative thrust (i.e., down instead of up) to pin the aircraft to the flight deck during rough weather. The aircraft can operate in head winds up to 50 kts and side and tail winds up to 40 kts.

The main rotor flying controls are powered by two independent hydraulic systems each operating three identical tandem servo units. Cyclic and collective control rods are duplicated and separated. A GEC Avionics three-axis automatic stabilization system is fitted.

The three turboshaft engines are located in the upper fuselage behind the main cabin with the exhaust venting to the sides. The main transmission has demonstrated a run-dry capacity in excess of two hours. The hydraulic rotor brake can stop the rotor within 15 seconds.

Crew seating is side-by-side in the forward main cabin. Up to 10 troops or 2,000 lb (907 kg) of cargo can be carried in the cabin. Six lightweight casualty litters can be installed in place of the seats or sensor equipment. For SAR missions, a hydraulically powered, 600-lb (272-kg) capacity rescue hoist can be fitted. An external cargo hook fitted below the fuselage has a 4,409-lb (2,000- kg) capacity.

The naval Lynx has fixed, tricycle wheels with main wheels capable of towing out 27 deg to allow deck handlers to bring it into the wind for take-offs. The landing gear oleo struts provide a constant ride height regardless of aircraft weight or ship's roll. Aircraft can be fitted with either a swivel-link tie-down or a hydraulic deck lock. Naval versions can manually fold the tail pylon for stowage. Several versions have small sponsons or outriggers at the main gear positions.

The avionics fit varies with the role. All Lynxes have the GEC Avionics three-axis, duplex automatic stabilization system and basic gyro and doppler navigation equipment; many are also fitted with a GEC Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), extensive VHF/UHF communication equipment, and navigational aids including DME, TACAN, and ILS. Aircraft flying from ships in the Persian Gulf during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm were fitted with the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS ) system.

ASW variants are fitted with a Texas Instruments AN/ASQ-81 Magnetic Anomaly Detector (MAD) or Bendix AN/ASQ-13 or AN/ASQ-18, or Alcatel DUAV 4 dipping sonar, and the AFCS is expanded to include a sonar cable angle hold mode. For SAR variants, the AFCS is enhanced with automatic transition to the hover and Doppler hover position control.

Operational Service with PN: Following its purchase of six surplus Royal Navy Type 21 frigates, the Pakistan Navy acquired three second hand RN Lynx HAS. Mk 3s. Although the navy already operates very able Sea King helicopters, these proved to be too large to be accomodated on the new ships. These were delivered to Pakistan in August 1994 onboard PNS Moawin. Three pilots and and three observers underwent type conversion at RNAS Portland during 1995/1996. This led to the formation of No. 222 Squadron in January 1996 for operations of the newest type.

Capable of antisubmarine classification and strike, air-to-surface-vessel search and strike, reconnaissance, search and rescue, troop transport, fire support, VERTREP, communications, and fleet liaison, they have a nose-mounted GEC-Marconi Seaspray search-and-tracking radar and can carry Sea Skua antiship missiles. However, Pakistan Navy currently does not have the Sea Skua in its inventory and the Lynx's in PN's service are used for general surveillance and giving ships Over The Horizon capability and Electronic Intelligence (ELNIT).

PN Squadrons:
  • No. 222 Squadron